Photo by Sandie Clarke on Unsplash

Agricultural Approach: Organic Agriculture

Organic Farming

Agriculture and fisheries make up the largest livelihood industries in the Philippines and are the most vulnerable to climate change impacts. Sustainability and livelihood stability in the agriculture sector can be achieved through organic farming. Organic farming uses organic fertilizers and techniques such as crop rotation and mechanical cultivation to maintain land productivity, increase biodiversity, and control pest infestation [3].

Climate Adaptation Effectiveness

The techniques, methods, and materials used in organic farming contribute to land productivity allowing sustainable and continuous production. If a farm is affected by climate change impacts like extreme rainfall, flooding, and drought, the technical assistance, training, and the presence of available technology help farmers respond easily. The use of crop techniques and organic fertilizers was found to increase the organic matter in soil contributing to its fertility and quality. In addition, there was also an observed increase in water absorption and decrease in soil erosion [1].

Climate Hazards

  • Extreme Rainfall
  • Rain-Induced Flooding
  • Rain-Induced Landslide
  • Tropical Cyclone


  • La Trinidad, Benguet, CAR (Cordillera Administrative Region)

Adapatation Sectors

  • Agriculture

CCET Instuments

  • Action Delivery

Target Group based on Vulnerability

Basic Sectors:


Economic / Financial Effectiveness

Compared to conventional farming, organic farmers have a slightly higher and more stable source of income due to crop techniques and fixed prices for the produce. However, when the price of produce from conventional farming is low, consumers opt to buy these instead of organic ones, which reduces farmer income [1]. Also, doing away with agro-chemical inputs reduces cash capital [2] although conventional farms switching to organic farming may experience yield loss and pest problems during the transition period [5].

Technical Feasibility

Organic farming is a knowledge and labor intensive process. Training and technical assistance are essential to aid in the initial phases, providing additional knowledge on adaptation strategies, and introducing technologies that could be utilized [1]. Access to advisory services are also crucial in increasing the adaptive capacities of the farmers [3].

Social Acceptability

Adoption rates of organic farming are dependent on the following factors: (1) community and organizational involvement for the exchange of knowledge [1][3]; (2) capacity building to improve the skills and techniques used [3]; and (3) government support [3].

Environmental Impact
Mid (+)

Organic farming promotes sustainable land management through the use of organic fertilizers and crop techniques. This method lessens the use of chemical inputs which can contribute to soil acidification [1].

Mitigation co-benefit

Organic farming prevents or reduces the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, reducing its greenhouse gas emissions [1].


organic farming, organic agriculture, sustainable agriculture, organic fertilizer, crop rotation, mechanical cultivation


[1] Cotling-Pulumbarit, C., Lasco, R., Rebancos, C., and Coladilla, J. (2018). Sustainable Livelihoods-Based Assessment of Adaptive Capacity to Climate Change: The Case of Organic and Conventional Vegetable Farmers in La Trinidad, Benguet, Philippines. Journal of Environmental Science and Management, Vol. 21, No.2.
[2] Mendoza, T. (2004). Evaluating the Benefits of Organic Farming in Rice Agroecosystems in the Philippines, Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 24:2, pp. 93-115.
[3] Sapbamrer, R., and Thammachai, A. (2021). A Systematic Review of Factors Influencing Farmers’ Adoption of Organic Farming. Sustainability, 13, pp. 1-28.
[4] Suefert, V. and Ramankutty, N. (2017). Many shades of gray-The context-dependent performance of organic agriculture. Science Advances. Vol. 3, No. 3.
[5] van Bniggen, A.H.C. and Termorskuizen, A.J. (2003). Integrated approaches to root disease management in organic farming systems. Australasian Plant Pathology 32, pp. 141–156.