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Agricultural Approach: Organic Agriculture and Cultivar Species

Organic Farming Using Location-specific New Improved Drought- and Flood-resistant Crop Varieties

Organic farming entails continued development of practices to determine which method and crop varieties would be the most effective for a specific location in terms of yield, production cost, and sustainability. Throughout the practice, new and improved crop varieties arise due to its adaptation to the changes in soil quality, farming method, and fertilizers [1].

Climate Adaptation Effectiveness

Some crop varieties become resilient to climate change impacts such as drought and flooding, optimizing the benefits of organic farming. In other areas, local farmers utilize soil and grass covers to allow crops to withstand the long drought season due to its aid in moisture retention [1].

Climate Hazards

  • Drought
  • Rain-Induced Flooding
  • Rainfall Variability


  • Esperanza, Sultan Kudarat, Region XII (SOCCSKSARGEN)
  • Bagumbayan, Sultan Kudarat, Region XII (SOCCSKSARGEN)
  • Alamada, Cotabato, Region XII (SOCCSKSARGEN)
  • Pigcawayan, Cotabato, Region XII (SOCCSKSARGEN)
  • Jabonga, Agusan del Norte, Region XIII (Caraga Region)

Adaptation Sectors

  • Agriculture

CCET Instuments

  • Action Delivery

Target Group based on Vulnerability

Basic Sectors:
  • Children
  • Farmers and Landless Rural Workers
  • Indigenous Peoples
  • Persons with Disabilities
  • Senior Citizens
  • Women
  • Youth and Students


Economic / Financial Effectiveness

Transitioning to organic farming requires high upfront costs and would have lower yields in its initial phase compared to conventional farming. However, over time, increase in productivity from organic practices would result in favorable returns. The use of improved crop varieties have much lower production costs and would allow higher yields despite drastic changes in climate, increasing profitability of the farm [1].

Technical Feasibility

The establishment of Climate-resiliency Field Schools (CrFS) is a good example of capacity building for the community through a grassroots approach which is essential in transitioning to organic farming. The CrFS conduct seminars on climate-smart farming including practical skills application and demonstration farms. This approach has proven to be effective as six municipalities in three provinces in Mindanao have implemented practices centered on sustainability and climate mitigation and adaptation [2].

Social Acceptability

Organic farming is not widely practiced due to the high initial cost, low demand for organic produce, lack of access to markets for consumer exposure, low standards for produce quality, and underdeveloped certification schemes. However, if the local government facilitates the adoption of organic farming by partnering with private entities and NGOs, and providing incentives and subsidies, more farmers would be open to learning more about organic farming and transition to climate smart practices. Networks and cooperatives such as Numo Organic Farmer Association and Organika Foods provide an avenue to share knowledge and initiate discussions between smallholder farmers. These groups allow for better representation of the farmers at the city/municipal and provincial level [1].

Environmental Impact
Mid (+)

The use of climate resilient crop varieties would allow the conservation of water resources as well as decrease the amount of fertilizers used for crop management. Utilization of this method reduces the possibility of soil degradation and contamination, thereby maintaining the soil quality. It could also increase soil productivity due to the continued use of the land all year-round, improving soil fertility and water absorption.

Mitigation co-benefit

Organic farming prevents or reduces the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides reducing its greenhouse gas emissions.


organic farming, organic agriculture, improved crop varieties, drought resistant crop, flood resistant, climate-resilient filed school, traditional varieities


[1] Chandra, A., Dargusch, P., McNamara, K. E., Caspe, A. M., and Dalabajan, D. (2017). A study of climate-smart farming practices and climate-resiliency field schools in Mindanao, the Philippines. World Development, 98, 214–230.
[2] Oxfam (2015). Community-based climate change action grants (CBCCAG) program activity completion report. Quezon City, The Philippines: Oxfam in The Philippines.