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Agricultural Approach: Soil and Water Conservation

Soil and Water Conservation Techniques

Currently, the Philippines is prioritizing the development of climate-resilient agriculture to address the vulnerability of the country to climate change as well as to minimize the damages brought by its impacts. Soil and water conservation measures, such as the efficient use of water, are climate-resilient agricultural practices put in place to decrease soil erosion and promote water availability in water-scarce conditions.

Climate Adaptation Effectiveness

Soil and water conservation techniques reduce the resources needed in crop production by increasing the ability of the soil to retain water thus increasing soil fertility and productivity. Applying these techniques also prevent soil degradation by proper land use management.

Climate Hazards

  • Drought
  • ENSO
  • Monsoon
  • Onset of Rainy Season
  • Rain-Induced Flooding
  • Rainfall Variability


  • Southern Luzon incl. Bicol, , Region V (Bicol Region)
  • , Region VIII (Eastern Visayas)
  • Southern and Eastern Mindanao, , Region XI (Davao)
  • Southern and Eastern Mindanao, , Region XIII (Caraga Region)

Adaptation Sectors

  • Agriculture
  • Water Management

CCET Instuments

  • Action Delivery

Target Group based on Vulnerability

Basic Sectors:
  • Children
  • Farmers and Landless Rural Workers
  • Indigenous Peoples
  • Persons with Disabilities
  • Senior Citizens
  • Women
  • Youth and Students


Economic / Financial Effectiveness

Initial upfront cost is high due to the equipment and training needed. However, implementation entails low production and operating costs by limiting the resources used.

Technical Feasibility

In order to implement these measures, detailed research is suggested to determine which combination of soil and water conservation techniques would best fit the area and the crops planted. Identifying the proper method would improve soil productivity and fertility thus promoting food availability and access.

Social Acceptability

Adoption rates for the Southern Luzon, and Southern and Eastern Mindanao regions are less than 30%.

Environmental Impact
High (+)

Soil and water conservation measures reduce runoff, prevent soil degradation, promote moisture retention, and crop productivity by improving soil health and water quality.

Other Information

The Climate Resilient Agriculture (CRA) was tested against eight climate smartness dimensions: yield (productivity); income, water, soil, risks (adaptation); energy, carbon and nitrogen (mitigation). The overall climate smartness in Southern Luzon including Bicol and Eastern Visayas is 3.4, and 4.2 in Southern and Eastern Mindanao.

Mitigation co-benefit

The increased productivity increases the capacity for carbon storage in the farms, thus aiding in climate change mitigation.


soil and water conservation, soil conservation, water conservation, soil fertility, climate resilient, soil moisture. water saving measures


Dikitanan, R., Grosjean, G., Nowak, A., Leyte, J. (2017). Climate-Resilient Agriculture in Philippines. CSA Country Profiles for Asia Series. International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT); Department of Agriculture - Adaptation and Mitigation Initiatives in Agriculture, Government of the Philippines. Manila, Philippines. 24.