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Agricultural Approach: Agroforestry

Alley Cropping in Upland Rice Farming Using Pineapple Hedgerows

Farming in the Philippines is becoming increasingly difficult to manage due to the increase in number and intensity of typhoons each year. Flooding is a direct consequence of these events and can halt the productivity of agricultural farms. As a solution, alley cropping, a system of planting woody shrubs/trees in between crops to introduce a protective barrier, can lessen damages to crops. In Samar, alley cropping is now introduced in upland rice farming using pineapples as hedgerows [1].

Climate Adaptation Effectiveness

Implementation of pineapple hedgerows are effective means of limiting surface runoff which can mitigate flooding and reduce soil erosion [1].

Climate Hazards

  • Extreme Rainfall
  • Rain-Induced Flooding
  • Rain-Induced Landslide
  • Sea Level Rise


  • Lope de Vega, Northern Samar, Region VIII (Eastern Visayas)
  • Motiong, Samar, Region VIII (Eastern Visayas)
  • Calbiga, Samar, Region VIII (Eastern Visayas)

Adaptation Sectors

  • Agriculture
  • Ecosystem-Based Approaches

CCET Instuments

  • Action Delivery

Target Group based on Vulnerability

Basic Sectors:
  • Children
  • Farmers and Landless Rural Workers
  • Indigenous Peoples
  • Persons with Disabilities
  • Senior Citizens
  • Women
  • Youth and Students


Economic / Financial Effectiveness

In Samar, the Kalinayan rice variety was planted with pineapple hedgerows. The initial upfront cost was PhP64,000/ha with a 3-year return of investment and internal rate of return of 87%, plus an additional annual profit of PhP 20,685/ha. Even if the rice yield is lower due to lesser area planted, the yield from the planted pineapples could provide additional income [3].

Technical Feasibility

Alley cropping requires technical knowledge that can be addressed by establishing demonstration farms and involving the whole community in the farming system. Consulting upland rice farmers would allow better identification of rice varieties suited for the area [1].

Social Acceptability

Within Samar Province, the current adoption rate of this method is 10% [3].

Environmental Impact
High (+)

Alley cropping in general, reduces soil erosion by lowering runoff. Pineapples were found to be comparable to the effectivity of trees or shrubs utilized in different alley cropping methods. They were also found to prevent the loss of nitrogen and potassium in the soil, maintaining the soil pH balance [2][3].

Mitigation co-benefit

Alley cropping using pineapple as hedgerows is a low carbon stock method because it exists as a shrub unlike other woody shrubs or trees with a higher carbon sequestration function. Soil becomes a larger carbon pool in an alley cropping system. However, utilizing this method can still enhance its carbon sequestration function if other climate smart agricultural practices are implemented [1].


alley cropping, alley crops. agroforestry, ecological benefits, diversified income, vegetative barrier


[1] Lasco, R. D., Evangelista, R. S., & Pulhin, F. B. (2010). Potential of Community-Based Forest Management to Mitigate Climate Change in the Philippines. Small-Scale Forestry, 9(4), 429–443.
[2] Sharma N. N., Sarma D., Paul S. R., Dey J. K., Bora P., and Singha D. D. 1997. Effect of countour-strip cropping pineapple (Ananas comosus) on rice (Oryza sativa) – sesame (Sesamum indicum) and maize (Zea mays) – sesame cropping sequences and their effect on soil properties. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 67(1): 20–22.