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Agricultural Approach: Farm Diversification

Diversifying the Mix of Crops and Livestock

Farming techniques have continuously been modified to adapt to drastic changes in climate. From conventional monocropping techniques, farmers have now transitioned to mixed crops such as vegetables, banana, coffee, and fruits; plus livestock to ensure productivity all year round.

Climate Adaptation Effectiveness

Along with implementing mixed crops and livestock, other organic farming and soil conservation strategies were employed by smallholder farms to ensure soil fertility and productivity. Most of which were practices learned from climate resiliency field schools. However, small-scale livestock farming on natural pastures is at risk during dry seasons due to lack of feeds available.

Climate Hazards

  • Drought
  • Rain-Induced Flooding
  • Tropical Cyclone


  • Esperanza, Sultan Kudarat, Region XII (SOCCSKSARGEN)
  • Bagumbayan, Sultan Kudarat, Region XII (SOCCSKSARGEN)
  • Alamada, Cotabato, Region XII (SOCCSKSARGEN)
  • Pigcawayan, Cotabato, Region XII (SOCCSKSARGEN)
  • Jabonga, Agusan del Norte, Region XIII (Caraga Region)

Adapatation Sectors

  • Agriculture

CCET Instuments

  • Action Delivery

Target Group based on Vulnerability

Basic Sectors:
  • Children
  • Farmers and Landless Rural Workers
  • Indigenous Peoples
  • Persons with Disabilities
  • Senior Citizens
  • Women
  • Youth and Students


Economic / Financial Effectiveness

The use of organic fertilizers produced by the households themselves lessened the costs in maintaining mixed crop farms. Implementing this strategy allowed the farmers to have a steady supply of food source and lessened their dependency on staple crops. The variety of crops supplemented their income and assured year long productivity on the farms. Meanwhile, for livestock, natural pastures are relied on as the food source.

Technical Feasibility

The presence of climate-resiliency field schools (CrFS) aided the adoption of mixed crops and livestock due to consistent training, awareness seminars, and demonstrations they have conducted. CrFS distributed vegetable seedlings (okra, eggplant, ampalaya, stringbeans, squash, and cucumber) to women farmers to establish the home gardens. In larger farms, perennial crops served as tree cover for the vegetable crops.

Social Acceptability

This method was highly accepted by farmers due to the increase in income from all year round production and diversification of income sources. They were much more receptive to this practice than other standalone mitigation and adaptation practices.

Environmental Impact
Mid (+)

Use of organic fertilizer made by the households lessened the probability of soil contamination, maintaining its fertility and quality.

Mitigation co-benefit

There is no direct mitigation co-benefit for this solution.


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Chandra, A., Dargusch, P., McNamara, K. E., Caspe, A. M., & Dalabajan, D. (2017). A study of climate-smart farming practices and climate-resiliency field schools in Mindanao, the Philippines. World Development, 98, 214-230.