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Agricultural Approach: Farm Diversification

Rice-Onion Crop Rotation

Crop rotation is an effective means of maintaining soil productivity across seasons by planting appropriate crops that can thrive in particular conditions. Rice-onion crop rotation is a cropping scheme utilized by the farmers of Bulalacao, Oriental Mindoro who plant onions during the dry season instead of leaving the land unused and open to weed, disease, and insect infestation [1].

Climate Adaptation Effectiveness

Planting onions in between rice planting seasons maintains the productivity of the land by keeping the soil fertile while disrupting infestation cycles. Onions can thrive in warmer temperatures and lower precipitation allowing crop cultivation all year round [1].

Climate Hazards

  • Drought
  • Rainfall Variability


  • Bulalacao, Oriental Mindoro, Region IV-B (MIMAROPA)

Adaptation Sectors

  • Agriculture
  • Water Management

CCET Instuments

  • Action Delivery

Target Group based on Vulnerability

Basic Sectors:
  • Children
  • Farmers and Landless Rural Workers
  • Indigenous Peoples
  • Persons with Disabilities
  • Senior Citizens
  • Women
  • Youth and Students


Economic / Financial Effectiveness

The initial cost of implementation is PhP 97,600/hectare with a 3-year return on investment. Rice-onion crop rotation in Bulalacao, Oriental Mindoro secures an estimated annual profit of PhP 38,750/hectare and internal rate of return of 47%. Even if the rice and onion yield is lower, this practice is still much more profitable than monocropping [1].

Technical Feasibility

Rice-onion crop rotation is an indigenous cropping scheme that is practiced to use the remaining nutrients from the rice field for onion production while disrupting the cycle of pests and diseases. The soil type in Bulalacao allows for the cultivation of onion during the dry seasons of October to June. Onions thrive in low moisture conditions and have a similar maturity period with rice which makes it ideal for rotation [1].

Social Acceptability

Only 3% of the rice farmers in Oriental Mindoro currently adopt this practice but it is projected to increase to 53% in the upcoming years [1].

Environmental Impact
Mid (+)

Planting rice during dry seasons is difficult due to additional efforts on soil management and irrigation. This method entails the use of more external input to maintain the crops. However, planting crops that can naturally thrive in dry conditions enhance soil productivity by taking advantage of existing soil moisture and allowing balanced fertilization [1].

Mitigation co-benefit

Crop rotation aids in the increase of soil carbon sequestration by increasing biomass production per unit area. This contributes to lowering the carbon dioxide released to the atmosphere [2].


farm diversification, crop rotation, nutrient cycling, land use intensification, legumes, rice-onion rotation


[2] Wang, Q., Li, Y., and Alva, A. (2010). Cropping Systems to Improve Carbon Sequestration for Mitigation of Climate Change. Journal of Environmental Protection, 2010, 1, 207-215.