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Agricultural Approach: Farm Diversification

Corn-Peanut Crop Rotation

Similar to rice, corn is traditionally monocropped but is grown in two seasons. However, drastic changes in climate and soil quality historically decreased the corn yield and soil productivity. Corn-peanut crop rotation is a cropping scheme that replaces the second season of corn planting with peanut to increase soil fertility and drive land productivity [1].

Climate Adaptation Effectiveness

Peanuts have a different growth habit from corn which enables it to provide additional nutrients to the alkaline soil where corn is grown. Corn-peanut crop rotation also breaks the pest infestation cycles lessening its impact on both crops.

Climate Hazards

  • Drought
  • Rainfall Variability
  • Rising Land Surface Temperature


  • Daanbantayan, Cebu, Region VII (Central Visayas)

Adaptation Sectors

  • Agriculture

CCET Instuments

  • Action Delivery

Target Group based on Vulnerability

Basic Sectors:
  • Children
  • Farmers and Landless Rural Workers
  • Indigenous Peoples
  • Persons with Disabilities
  • Senior Citizens
  • Women
  • Youth and Students


Economic / Financial Effectiveness

The initial cost of implementation is PhP 51,500/hectare with a 1-year return on investment. Farmers practicing corn-peanut crop rotation in Cebu have an estimated annual profit of PhP 25,250/hectare and internal rate of return of 162%. Even if the corn and peanut yield is lower, this practice is still much more profitable than monocropping. Furthermore, the break in pest infestation cycles lowers the cost of pest management thereby lowering production cost of both crops [1].

Technical Feasibility

This practice is most effective in uphill and hilly areas where corn and peanut can thrive. In order to encourage more farmers to apply crop rotation, the LGU could subsidize fertilizer and seedlings cost. Training could also be held to ensure the success of the implementation of the practice [1].

Social Acceptability

An estimated 10% of corn farmers in Cebu currently adopt this practice but it is projected to increase to 50% in the upcoming years [1].

Environmental Impact
Mid (+)

Legumes such as peanuts can aid in nitrogen fixing through its symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria. It produces ammonia which can serve as natural fertilizer to plants and increase soil fertility. This benefit along with the disruption in pest cycles lowers external input thus conserving resources [1].

Mitigation co-benefit

Corn-peanut crop rotation is a low carbon footprint practice due to decreased use of fertilizers and pesticides leading to lower greenhouse gas emissions. Similar to other crop rotation practices, it aids in the increase of soil carbon sequestration and increasing biomass production per unit area by reducing the frequency of bare land fallow [2].


farm diversification, crop rotation, soil fertility, increased productivity, increased profiability, corn-peanut; pest management


[2] Wang, Q., Li, Y., and Alva, A. (2010). Cropping Systems to Improve Carbon Sequestration for Mitigation of Climate Change. Journal of Environmental Protection, 2010, 1, 207-215