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Agricultural Approach: Farm Diversification

Corn-Squash + Corn Crop Rotation

Crop rotation schemes were developed to ensure yield, profit, and food availability despite climate variability. In Jabonga, Agusan del Sur, farmlands close to Lake Mainit are flooded during high rainfall periods. Farms have utilized the corn-squash+corn crop rotation scheme wherein corn is planted for two seasons: March to June and July to October. For the second season, corn is intercropped with squash [1].

Climate Adaptation Effectiveness

The corn-squash plus corn crop rotation scheme allows for the maximization of the drier season by diversifying the cultivated crops. This results in a higher probability of securing income during the flood months and food for livestock during off-season [1].

Climate Hazards

  • Rain-Induced Flooding


  • Jabonga, Agusan del Norte, Region XIII (Caraga Region)

Adaptation Sectors

  • Agriculture

CCET Instuments

  • Action Delivery

Target Group based on Vulnerability

Basic Sectors:
  • Children
  • Farmers and Landless Rural Workers
  • Indigenous Peoples
  • Persons with Disabilities
  • Senior Citizens
  • Women
  • Youth and Students


Economic / Financial Effectiveness

The initial cost of implementation is PhP 28,600/hectare with a 2-year return on investment. Farmers practicing corn-rice-green corn crop rotation have an estimated annual profit of PhP 12,368/hectare and internal rate of return of 70%. Even if the corn and squash yield is lower, this practice is still much more profitable than monocropping [1].

Technical Feasibility

High initial upfront costs make the implementation of this scheme in flood-prone farmlands difficult. Incentives and financial support from the government could help the farmers transition to this scheme in time for the flood period. LGUs could aid in the increase of information dissemination in the province by organizing training and programs introducing this practice and its advantages. Collaborations with other government agencies could also identify markets for the products of this scheme [1].

Social Acceptability

An estimated 3% of corn farmers in Agusan del Norte currently adopt this practice but it is projected to increase to 30% in the upcoming years [1].

Environmental Impact
Mid (+)

Crop rotation, in general, lessens the difficulty in pest and disease management due to the disruption in the infestation cycles. It also encourages nutrient cycling [1].

Mitigation co-benefit

Corn-squash plus corn crop rotation aids in the increase of soil carbon sequestration by increasing biomass production per unit area [2].


farm diversification, crop rotation, intercrop, diverse income stream, corn-squash cropping


[2] Wang, Q., Li, Y., and Alva, A. (2010). Cropping Systems to Improve Carbon Sequestration for Mitigation of Climate Change. Journal of Environmental Protection, 2010, 1, 207-215.