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Crop Protection and Nutrient Management

Use of Chemical Fertilizers and Pesticides

In order to prevent losses during challenging seasons in agriculture, chemical fertilizers and pesticides are used to promote growth and reduce the occurrence of pest and disease infestation. Arguably, this can be considered as maladaptation because of several negative environmental impacts.

Climate Adaptation Effectiveness

Use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides promote crop production contributing to food availability. However, it also negatively impacts soil quality and causes soil degradation and lowered soil organic matter.

Climate Hazards

  • Rainfall Variability
  • Rising Land Surface Temperature


  • (Barangays: Cupang, Malibong Bata, Malibong Matanda, and Masagana), Pandi, Bulacan, Region III (Central Luzon)

Adaptation Sectors

  • Agriculture

CCET Instuments

  • Action Delivery

Target Group based on Vulnerability

Basic Sectors:
  • Children
  • Farmers and Landless Rural Workers
  • Indigenous Peoples
  • Persons with Disabilities
  • Senior Citizens
  • Women
  • Youth and Students


Economic / Financial Effectiveness

Majority of farmers use chemical fertilizers and pesticides to address production and pest problems in a short period of time; and to minimize cost as well. Many farmers are inclined to adopt short-term strategies as a response to sudden shocks. For example, some farmers prefer the use of organic fertilizers as it is cheaper than commercially available fertilizer in the market.

Technical Feasibility

Social Acceptability

Farmers were mostly influenced by technicians from chemical companies conducting field and product demonstrations.

Environmental Impact
Mid (-)

Prolonged use of chemical fertilizers can be detrimental to soil quality.

Mitigation co-benefit

Use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides increases greenhouse gas emissions (nitrous oxide).


crop protection, nutrient management, chemical fertilizer, pesticides use, commercial pesticides, enhanced soil nutrient, reduced pest and diseases, nutrient management


Peñalba, E. H. (2019). Adaptation to climate change among farmers in Bulacan, Philippines. The Journal of Rural and Community Development, 14(2), 1–23.