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Species/Cultivar selection and Agroforestry

Use of Drought-resistant Varieties and Agro-reforestation of Marginal Areas and Denuded Forests

Reforestation is a strategy often employed to populate denuded and marginal areas with plant species that would aid in lowering greenhouse gas emissions. In order to maximize the reforestation efforts, drought-resistant varieties such as macopa, siniguelas, and native santol are selected to increase the lifespan of forests and minimize maintenance costs [2].

Climate Adaptation Effectiveness

Some varieties of macopa, siniguelas, and native santol are hardy, prolific, and drought-resistant which make them ideal tree species to be used in agro-reforestation, as they can stand either or both drought and flooding, and those places with less water and erratic rainfall. The varieties of macopa and siniguelas can be planted in marginal areas and siniguelas can also be planted in areas with nutrient deficient soils. Meanwhile, varieties of native santol can thrive in both drought and flood-prone areas. The native santol can be also used as border trees in windy and typhoon-prone areas to protect any crop susceptible to wind damage. [2].

Climate Hazards

  • Drought
  • Rain-Induced Flooding
  • Rainfall Variability


  • Inisluban, Lipa City, Batangas, Region IV-A (CALABARZON)
  • Sto. Cristo, San Jose, Batangas, Region IV-A (CALABARZON)
  • Magnetic Hill, Los Baños, Laguna, Region IV-A (CALABARZON)
  • Bacao, Taysan, Batangas, Region IV-A (CALABARZON)
  • Seaside, Lobo, Batangas, Region IV-A (CALABARZON)
  • San Juan, Kalayaan, Laguna, Region IV-A (CALABARZON)
  • Labuin, Santa Cruz, Laguna, Region IV-A (CALABARZON)

Adaptation Sectors

  • Agriculture
  • Forestry

CCET Instuments

  • Action Delivery

Target Group based on Vulnerability

Basic Sectors:
  • Children
  • Farmers and Landless Rural Workers
  • Indigenous Peoples
  • Persons with Disabilities
  • Senior Citizens
  • Women
  • Youth and Students


Economic / Financial Effectiveness

Macopa, siniguelas, and native santol are fruit-bearing trees which can provide an additional income stream despite harsh changes in climate. Native santol is also commonly commercially sold as jams, preserve, candies, and jellies [1].

Technical Feasibility

Macopa, siniguelas, and native santol can be used for agro-reforestation of marginal areas and denuded forests since they are all hardy, have strong root systems, and are fast growers. They can be also planted in places that are frequently visited by typhoons. However, selection of varieties used for the reforestation entails technical knowledge and research to make sure that the variety used is drought-resistant [2].

Social Acceptability

Some of the drought-resistant varieties were already used in different farms located in Laguna, Cavite and Batangas [2]. Farmers might be hesitant in using new varieties of the tree species if the yield is the same and there is enough water that using drought-resistant varieties which are costly, might be unnecessary.. Some varieties also produce lower yield when heavy rainfall occurs [1].

Environmental Impact
Low (+)

Reforestation of marginal areas and denuded forests prevent soil erosion, promote biodiversity, and improve air and soil quality. These tree selections can be the best bet for storing carbon at very little cost and high return.

Mitigation co-benefit

This strategy reduces greenhouse gas emissions due to carbon sequestration of trees.


agroforestry, drought-resistant variety, marginal areas, denuded forests, drought tolerance, fruit trees,


[1] Lybbert, T. and Bell, A. (2010). Why drought tolerance is not the new Bt. Nature Biotechnology, 28 (6), 553-554.
[2] Magdalita, P. and Saludes, R. (2015). Influence of Changing Rainfall Patterns on the Yield of Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) and Selection of Genotypes in Known Drought-tolerant Fruit Species for Climate Change Adaptation. Science Diliman, 27 (1), pp. 64-90.