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Agricultural Technology

Small Water Impounding Management (SWIM) Systems

Climate change effects especially droughts and irregular weather patterns are detrimental to crop management endangering food security. The Philippines currently experiences an increase in temperature in dry seasons and heavier rainfall during wet seasons. In order to take advantage of abundant rainfall during the wet seasons, small water impounding management (SWIM) projects are constructed to utilize accumulated rainwater for aquaculture, domestic use, and crop and livestock management. SWIM also serves as flood mitigation structures [1][2][3].

Climate Adaptation Effectiveness

SWIM projects have been proven to be beneficial to the country by providing irrigation to farmlands during dry seasons since 1974. However, in Quirino Province, SWIMs have been more effective in serving as a water source for livestock management and aquaculture [2][3].

Climate Hazards

  • Drought
  • Rain-Induced Flooding
  • Rainfall Variability


  • Divisoria Norte, Maddela, Quirino, Region II (Cagayan Valley)
  • Burgos, Cabarroguis, Quirino, Region II (Cagayan Valley)
  • Municipality of Talugtog, Nueva Ecija, Region III (Central Luzon)
  • , Region III (Central Luzon)
  • , Region VI (Western Visayas)

Adaptation Sectors

  • Agriculture
  • Disaster Risk Reduction
  • Water Management

CCET Instuments

  • Action Delivery

Target Group based on Vulnerability

Basic Sectors:
  • Children
  • Farmers and Landless Rural Workers
  • Indigenous Peoples
  • Persons with Disabilities
  • Senior Citizens
  • Women
  • Youth and Students


Economic / Financial Effectiveness

No initial costs are shouldered by the farmers because the project is fully funded by the Department of Agriculture. The construction of SWIM projects in Cabarroguis and Maddela, Quirino Province have greatly contributed to the increase in yield and profit of the farmers. A yield increase of 2.14 T/year and additional profit of PhP 32,113.64 was generated in Cabarroguis while a yield increase of 2.08 T/yr and additional profit of PhP 31,313.60 was generated in Maddela [2].

Technical Feasibility

In 2015, the DENR-Forest Management Bureau circulated a guideline on the standard cost and design of SWIM projects that would be implemented by LGUs in constructing the storage structure. Due to the scale of the project, the government provides the budget necessary to initiate SWIM projects but will later be managed by the community. Training and capacity building of farmer beneficiaries are needed to sustain the operation and maintain the structure. It would be beneficial to organize a farmer’s association within the community to serve as an avenue for collaboration, exchange of knowledge, and to invoke a shared responsibility for the project [1][2].

Social Acceptability

SWIM projects have long been initiated in the country and are considered as a widely socially acceptable solution.

Environmental Impact
Mid (+)

The construction of SWIM projects reduce soil erosion, aid in flood mitigation, and contribute to the conservation of water resources [2].

Mitigation co-benefit

This solution helps maintain or improve soil carbon stocks.


small water impounding system, small water impoundments, harvest rainfall, store rainfall, store run off, flood control, reduce soil erosion


[1] DENR-FMB Technical Bulletin No. 15 Supplemental Standard Cost and Design for Small Water Impounding Project (SWIP).
[2] Naval, R. (2016). Socioeconomic Impact of Small Water Impounding Projects in Quirino Province, Philippines. Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection, 4, 101-106.
[3] Naval, R. (2017). Performance Evaluation of Burgos Small Water Impounding Project in Cabarroguis, Qurino. QSU Research Journal, 6(1).