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Nature-based Solutions

Mangrove Reforestation

Mangrove ecosystems have a significant contribution to disaster risk reduction and climate mitigation in the tropics. Unfortunately, mangrove ecosystems are vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, especially the rise of sea level. Through reforestation, these ecosystems can be replanted in areas where inland migration becomes possible [3].

Climate Adaptation Effectiveness

Mangrove reforestation has gained mixed success in increasing mangrove population due to its high mortality rate. However, if proper research and evaluation is done before starting the project, it could become successful [2]. In the Philippines, mangroves protect 613,461 people per year from flooding and damages [4].

Climate Hazards

  • Rain-Induced Flooding
  • Sea Level Rise
  • Storm Surge
  • Tropical Cyclone



Adaptation Sectors

  • Biodiversity
  • Coastal Areas
  • Disaster Risk Reduction
  • Ecosystem-Based Approaches
  • Marine and Fisheries

CCET Instuments

  • Action Delivery

Target Group based on Vulnerability

Basic Sectors:
  • Artisanal Fisherfolk
  • Children
  • Farmers and Landless Rural Workers
  • Indigenous Peoples
  • Persons with Disabilities
  • Senior Citizens
  • Women
  • Workers in the Informal Sector
  • Youth and Students


Economic / Financial Effectiveness

The initial cost for mangrove reforestation in the Philippines is high, at about Php26,000 per hectare and would entail an annual maintenance cost. However, coastal protection provided by mangrove forests will save millions of pesos of possible damages if an extreme hazard event occurs. Livelihood would also improve upon the growth of mangrove forests due to increased productivity in the area which would enhance fisheries. It could also provide for timber and wood fuel [3][4].

Technical Feasibility

In order to secure the success of mangrove reforestation, the following should be prepared: a detailed study on the tree species used, site investigation, a good method design, and a conclusive management plan. Failure in mangrove afforestation is attributed to the use of wrong tree species, improper evaluation of site, and the lack of space for inland migration of the mangroves. Due to the lack of space, most mangroves are planted in deeper waters where they could thrive but will eventually encounter difficulty in coping with sea level rise [2]. The site chosen should have enough space from the coast to urban infrastructures for inward migration. Otherwise, there is a need for assisted migration and replanting to a different area which would entail additional costs [3].

Social Acceptability

There is a difficulty in implementing this solution due to the availability of land and competing land uses [1][3].

Environmental Impact
Mid (+)

Increase in mangrove population would prevent coastal erosion, increase water quality by trapping contaminants in the root network, and increase productivity and biodiversity [3].

Mitigation co-benefit

Mangrove ecosystems are known to be major carbon sinks. Expansion of which would also increase the carbon input per hectare in mangrove forests.


mangroves, climate hazards, vulnerability, coastal protection, sea level rise, mangrove reforestation


[1] Barbier, E. (2009). The valuation of ecosystem services. In Ecosystem-based management for the oceans: Applying resilience thinking, ed. K. McLeod, and H. Leslie. Washington, DC: Island Press.
[2] Blankespoor, B., Dasgupta, S., and Lange, GM. (2016). Mangroves as a protection from storm surges in a changing climate. Ambio, 46, pp. 478–491.
[3] Menendez, P., Losada, I.J., Beck, M.W., Torres-Ortega, S., Espejo, A., Narayan, S., Diaz-Simal, P. and Lange, G.M., 2018. Valuing the protection services of mangroves at national scale: The Philippines. Ecosystem services, 34, pp.24-36.
[4] Primavera, J.H., Esteban, J.M.A. (2008). A review of mangrove rehabilitation in the Philippines: successes, failures and future prospects. Wetlands Ecol Manage 16, 345–358 (2008).