Climate Adaptation Effectiveness
Mangrove reforestation has gained mixed success in increasing mangrove population due to its high mortality rate. However, if proper research and evaluation is done before starting the project, it could become successful . In the Philippines, mangroves protect 613,461 people per year from flooding and damages .
- Rain-Induced Flooding
- Sea Level Rise
- Storm Surge
- Tropical Cyclone
- Coastal Areas
- Disaster Risk Reduction
- Ecosystem-Based Approaches
- Marine and Fisheries
- Action Delivery
Target Group based on Vulnerability
- Artisanal Fisherfolk
- Farmers and Landless Rural Workers
- Indigenous Peoples
- Persons with Disabilities
- Senior Citizens
- Workers in the Informal Sector
- Youth and Students
Economic / Financial Effectiveness
The initial cost for mangrove reforestation in the Philippines is high, at about Php26,000 per hectare and would entail an annual maintenance cost. However, coastal protection provided by mangrove forests will save millions of pesos of possible damages if an extreme hazard event occurs. Livelihood would also improve upon the growth of mangrove forests due to increased productivity in the area which would enhance fisheries. It could also provide for timber and wood fuel .
In order to secure the success of mangrove reforestation, the following should be prepared: a detailed study on the tree species used, site investigation, a good method design, and a conclusive management plan. Failure in mangrove afforestation is attributed to the use of wrong tree species, improper evaluation of site, and the lack of space for inland migration of the mangroves. Due to the lack of space, most mangroves are planted in deeper waters where they could thrive but will eventually encounter difficulty in coping with sea level rise . The site chosen should have enough space from the coast to urban infrastructures for inward migration. Otherwise, there is a need for assisted migration and replanting to a different area which would entail additional costs .
There is a difficulty in implementing this solution due to the availability of land and competing land uses .
Increase in mangrove population would prevent coastal erosion, increase water quality by trapping contaminants in the root network, and increase productivity and biodiversity .
Mangrove ecosystems are known to be major carbon sinks. Expansion of which would also increase the carbon input per hectare in mangrove forests.
mangroves, climate hazards, vulnerability, coastal protection, sea level rise, mangrove reforestation