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Early Warning Systems (EWS)

Flood Early Warning System

The Philippines, having only two seasons, has a very prominent wet season from the middle of May to the end of October. In times of heavy rainfall from low pressure areas and passing typhoons, flooding may occur. To mitigate the possible damages and casualties from flooding, local government units have acquired forecasting systems that allow for local assessment of the hazard and faster information dissemination [3].

Climate Adaptation Effectiveness

In order to reduce damages and casualties, the LGU of Guagua, Leyte performs round the clock monitoring during the wet season using a rain gauge installed at the roof of their municipal building. The rain gauge would send a flood alert signal if the rainfall rate becomes 80-100 mm per second then the information is disseminated to the community. The citizens then respond by doing the suggested evacuation procedure or preventive measures [1]. The flood early warning system is also effective in mitigating problems that could arise from flooding such as ground subsidence [3].

Climate Hazards

  • Rain-Induced Flooding
  • Tropical Cyclone


  • Guagua, Pampanga, Region III (Central Luzon)

Adapatation Sectors

  • Disaster Risk Reduction
  • Urban

CCET Instuments

  • Action Delivery
  • Knowledge and Capacity Development

Target Group based on Vulnerability

Basic Sectors:
  • Businesses
  • Children
  • Formal Labor and Migrant Workers
  • Indigenous Peoples
  • Persons with Disabilities
  • Senior Citizens
  • Urban Poor
  • Women
  • Workers in the Informal Sector
  • Youth and Students


Economic / Financial Effectiveness

The initial cost of the early warning system (EWS) is Php 2,000,000. This includes the equipment, automated weather system, and water level monitoring system along with the installation, technician training, and construction of the monitoring and information dissemination office. Aside from the initial 2,000,000 PhP, there is the addition of an annual operating cost of PhP 1,700,000 [1].

Technical Feasibility

The Guagua EWS consisted of three components: the measurement of rainfall through the rain water gauge, alerts from the flood warning system for critical values, and information dissemination to the community. The Guagua EWS was well coordinated with other sectors and had clear procedures, making the system effective [3].

Social Acceptability
No Evidence

Less damages during heavy rainfall suggests that the EWS is greatly valued by the LGU and the community.

Environmental Impact

There is no direct environmental impact for this solution.

Mitigation co-benefit

There is no direct mitigation co-benefit for this solution.


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[1] Arias, J., Dorado, R., Mendoza, M., and Ballaran, V. (2015). Exploring the Potentials of a Technology Based Flood Early Warning System in Laguna, Philippines: A Cost-Benefit Analysis. In: D. James, H.A. Francisco (eds.), Cost-Benefit Studies of Natural Resource Management in Southeast Asia. pp. 369-387. DOI 10.1007/978-981-287-393-4_17
[2] Cosio, R. and De Jesus, N. (2010). Climate Change Vulnerability and Adaptive Capacity of the Guagua Community in Pampanga. JPAIR Multidisciplinary Journal, 4, pp. 196-219.
[3] Peñalba, L.M., Elazegui, D.D., Pulhin, J.M. and Victor O. Cruz, R.(2012). Social and institutional dimensions of climate change adaptation. International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, 4(3), pp. 308-322.