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Ecological Restoration/Ecosystem Restoration

“Rainforestation” is an ecological restoration approach which aims to plant native trees alongside fruit trees to resemble the natural conditions where they thrived in the past. Its main goal is to increase the productivity and longevity of the fruit trees by allowing it to thrive in a forest-like environment. This approach does not only reap benefits economically but also promotes and preserves the local biodiversity by putting emphasis on planting native trees that grow in the nearby areas [3].

Climate Adaptation Effectiveness

Climate Hazards

  • Rainfall Variability


  • Mt. Malindang, Misamis Occidental (Barangay Old Liboron, Barangay Mansawan, Barangay Gandawan, Barangay New Liboron, Barangay Sebucal, Lake Duminagat), Misamis Occidental, Region X (Northern Mindanao)

Adaptation Sectors

  • Agriculture
  • Forestry

CCET Instuments

  • Action Delivery

Target Group based on Vulnerability

Basic Sectors:
  • Farmers and Landless Rural Workers
  • Watershed Communities


Economic / Financial Effectiveness

Aside from planting native trees, village forests made up of vegetables and annual crops were also cultivated beside them. The productivity of the vegetable farms and the introduction of growing seedlings assisted a local economic boom in the area due to an increase in employment opportunities [2]. There is a marked increase in household income from around PhP 1,500-4,350 to an increase of 20-200% for the duration of September 2008-August 2009 [1]. As a result, local residents now have the means to buy non-perishable items and make plans for other purchases [2]. On a larger scale, higher incomes boosted the local economy due to more purchases of basic needs. This is demonstrated by the increase in income of the local businesses in Mansawan, the center of commerce in Misamis Occidental [2]. Local stores have increased their supply and expanded to nearby areas in need of commodities [1].

Technical Feasibility

In the initial phase of the project, the goal of 40 hectares of rainforested area was achieved with a total of 100,000 seedlings of 38 native species. There was a death rate of about 10% throughout Phase 1, but the seedlings were immediately replaced. Alongside the native trees, 10 hectares of rubber and falcata trees were planted in every barangay. Rubber saplings experienced high death rates and were eventually replaced with abaca. During Phase 2 of the project, higher survival rates of seedlings and saplings were observed due to the knowledge of tree species, cultivation methods, as well as improved skills and expertise of the workers [2]. Vermiculture and goat-raising became components of the project as a source of organic fertilizers. PENRO (Provincial Environment and Natural Resources Office) trained the workers in vermiculture, incorporating goat manure to increase vermicast (worm castings) harvest. The use of organic fertilizer resulted in the increase in seedling survival rate as well as vegetable yield from the gardens [1].

Social Acceptability

There was a general acceptance of the project due to its income generating potential. The local residents valued the forest even more and became aware of the need to promote and preserve the resources that they now have for the future generations [2].

Environmental Impact
Mid (+)

In general, rainforestation is an ecological approach that is beneficial to land rehabilitation and improvement by increasing productivity and longevity of planted trees, and improving biodiversity. However, it does not replace the role of natural forests and could possibly be detrimental to plant biodiversity and productivity in the long term. It should be emphasized that in order to implement this effectively, gaining more information on the landscape, as well as other forest management initiatives should be prioritized [3]. Additionally, one goal of this project is to maintain the delivery of potable water to the barangays by protecting watersheds. The deeply rooted trees planted on slopes, hold on to the substrate, preventing soil erosion and watershed degradation [2].

Other Information

In this solution, what makes it more effective is the inclusion of the livelihood and food security of the residents in the community during the implementation of the project [2].

Mitigation co-benefit

One of the climate mitigating effects of this project is the absorption of carbon dioxide by the planted trees which reduces its amount in the atmosphere thus limiting global warming. Annual carbon dioxide absorption of rainforested sites in Leyte and Southern Leyte amounted to 3.67T per which is near to the value absorbed by rehabilitated forests at about 4.06T per hectare [3].


rainforestation, native tree species, biodiversity, economic restoration, ecological restoration; agroforestry, ecosystems restoration


[1] Bracamonte, N., Ponce, S., Roxas, A. (2010). Rainforestation Project in the Mt. Malindang Range Natural Park: Socioeconomic Effects a Year Hence. The Mindanao Forum, 23(2) pp.51-78.
[2] Nuneza, O. (2012). Mt. Malindang Rainforestation Project Misamis Occidental. In: MDGF: Compendium of Good Practices on Climate Change Adaptation.
[3] Veridiano, R., Schröder, J., Come, R., Baldos, A., and Günter, S. (2020). Towards Forest Landscape Restoration Programs in the Philippines: Evidence from Logged Forests and Mixed‐Species Plantations. environments, 7(20), pp1-22.