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Reforestation is one of the methods easily implemented for climate change mitigation and adaptation. It is a process of planting trees in denuded areas to serve different purposes. It could either be a source of timber and fuelwood, done to rehabilitate the previous state of the land, or to prevent soil erosion and watershed degradation [6][7].

Climate Adaptation Effectiveness

The advantages of reforestation are dependent on the areas where the trees are planted, which tree species were used, and the method applied [13][16]. Most often, reforestation increases the rates of infiltration and run off during dry seasons. This helps lowland farmers reduce crop destruction because it minimizes the chances of flood and water shortage [1][11]. On the other hand, fast-growing trees have increased transpiration rates and reduced run-off [4]. For effective reforestation to be implemented, the area should be investigated well to determine what method and tree species should be used to obtain the goal of the reforestation [9].

Climate Hazards

  • Drought
  • Onset of Rainy Season
  • Rain-Induced Flooding


  • Pantabangan-Carranglan Watershed, Pantabangan, Nueva Ecija, Region III (Central Luzon)
  • Leyte Island, Leyte, Leyte, Region VIII (Eastern Visayas)

Adapatation Sectors

  • Disaster Risk Reduction
  • Forestry
  • Water Management

CCET Instuments

  • Action Delivery

Target Group based on Vulnerability

Basic Sectors:
  • Children
  • Farmers and Landless Rural Workers
  • Indigenous Peoples
  • Persons with Disabilities
  • Senior Citizens
  • Women
  • Youth and Students


Economic / Financial Effectiveness

Reforestation can contribute to the local community by providing a steady supply of fuelwood as well as providing employment and income. However, it entails high initial and maintenance costs which would be difficult for the funding institution. Although labor costs accounting to 70% can still be reduced [5]. DENR summarized the cost breakdown for implementing the National Greening Program below [2]. Site validation, assessment, and planning: PhP 450/hectare Site preparation: PhP 3,000/hectare IEC/transportation/mobilization of partners: PhP 1,000/hectare Maintenance and protection of established plantations: PhP 1,000/hectare (year 1); Php 3,000/hectare (year 2); PhP 2,000/hectare (year 3)

Technical Feasibility

Successful reforestation efforts can be attained by considering the following factors: (1) determining an apt revegetation method and identifying which tree species to use in order to promote productivity and reap environmental benefits, (2) minimizing forest disturbances by putting in place measures to prevent them, (3) partnering with local communities to maintain the longevity of the forest by providing incentives, (4) identifying income generating opportunities to create sustainable livelihoods, (5) inviting partnerships with other agencies and private entities to ensure continuous funding for forest management, (6) capacity building and technical training for those on the ground as well as partnering with agencies for aid in product marketing for products generated in the forest, and (7) increased access to the areas to easily transport supplies and products in and out [7].

Social Acceptability

Due to high costs of reforestation, farmers are hesitant to implement the method. Social acceptability may increase if there is a concrete plan presented regarding the forest management method, employment opportunities and income, shared costs and benefits, and future-proofing. Once implemented, longevity of the project would depend on how the reforestation is seen beyond its technical needs. The local community should be able to understand its importance across different contexts [8][14].

Environmental Impact
Mid (+)

About 50% of the reforestation projects in Leyte observed a decrease in soil erosion and landslide events in their respective areas. Mixed species plantations were reported to have more significant results [7][10]. Reforestation also combats watershed degradation by increasing infiltration rates and run-off but conversely, it could affect the water supply needed for hydropower and farm irrigation [5]. The tree species used in reforestation could become more resilient to climate change, increasing its chances for longevity [15]. These could, likewise, serve as habitat for migrating species thus improving the forest ecosystem [3][9].

Mitigation co-benefit

Reforestation contributes to carbon sequestration.


reforestation, fast growing, exotic species, native species, timber plantations, native tree species, recreate original forest, agroforestry


[1] Bruijnzeel, L.A. (2004). Hydrological functions of tropical forests: not seeing the soil for the trees? Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 104: 185– 228.
[2] Commission on Audit. (2019). Performance Audit Report: National Greening Program.
[3] Carnus, J-M, Parrotta, J., Brockerhoff, E., Arbez, M., Jactel, H., Kremer, A., Lamb, D., O'Hara, K., Walters, B. (2006). Planted forests and biodiversity. Journal of Forestry 104:65–77.
[4] Hodgman, T., Munger, J., Hall, J.S., Ashton, M.S. (2012). Managing afforestation and reforestation for carbon sequestration: considerations for land managers and policy makers. Pages 227– 255. In: MS Ashton, ML Tyrrell, D Spalding, B Philippines. Global Environmental Change, 24, pp.334-348.
[5] PhilCCA WG2 - Lasco, R. D., Cruz, R. V. O., Pulhin, J. M., & Pulhin, F. B. (2011). Assessing climate change impacts, vulnerability and adaptation: The case of Pantabangan-Carranglan watershed. New York, USA: Nova Science.
[6] Le, H.D., Smith, C., Herbohn, J., Harrison, S., (2012). More than just trees: assessing reforestation success in tropical developing countries. Journal of Rural Studies, 28, 5–19.
[7] Le, H.D., Smith, C., and Herbohn, J. (2014). What drives the success of reforestation projects in tropical developing countries? The case of the Philippines. Global Environmental Change, 24, pp.334-348.
[8] Light, A., Higgs, E., (1996). The Politics of Ecological Restoration. Environmental Ethics, 18, 227–247.
[9] Locatelli, B., Catterall, C.P., Imbach, P., Kumar, C., Lasco, R., Marín-Spiotta, E., Mercer,B., Powers, J.S., Schwartz, N., and Uriarte, M., (2015). Tropical reforestation and climate change: beyond carbon. Restoration Ecology. 23, pp.337–343.
[10] Nawir, A.A., Murniati, Rumboko, L., (2007). Forest Rehabilitation in Indonesia: Where to After Three Decades? Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Bogor, Indonesia.
[11] Ogden, F.L., Crouch, T.D., Stallard, R.F., Hall, J.S. (2013). Effect of land cover and use on dry season river runoff, runoff efficiency, and peak storm runoff in the seasonal tropics of Central Panama. Water Resources Research 49: 8443– 8462.
[12] Pawson, S., Brin, A., Brockerhoff, E., Lamb, D., Payn, T., Paquette, A., Parrotta, J. (2013). Plantation forests, climate change and biodiversity. Biodiversity and Conservation 22:1203–1227.
[13] Ponette-González, A.G., Marín-Spiotta, E., Brauman, K.A., Farley, K.A., Weathers, K.C., and Young, K.R. (2014.) Hydrologic connectivity in the high-elevation tropics: heterogeneous responses to land change. Bioscience 64: 92– 104.
[14] Swart, J.A.A., van der Windt, H.J., Keulartz, J., (2001). Valuation of nature in conservation and restoration. Restoration Ecology 9, 230–238.
[15] Travis, J.M.J. (2003). Climate change and habitat destruction: a deadly anthropogenic cocktail. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 270:467–473.
[16] Uriarte, M., Yackulic, C.B., Lim, Y., Arce-Nazario, J.A. (2011). Influence of land use on water quality in a tropical landscape: a multi-scale analysis. Landscape Ecology 26: 1151– 1164.